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Prevention : Face masks, Self-isolation, Surface cleaning, Air filtration & Vaccine


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Prevention

Face masks and respiratory hygiene
The CDC and WHO recommend individuals wear non-medical face coverings in public settings where there is an increased risk of transmission and where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. This recommendation is meant to reduce the spread of the disease by asymptomatic and pre-symtomatic individuals and is complementary to established preventive measures such as social distancing. Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. Many countries and local jurisdictions encourage or mandate the use of face masks or cloth face coverings by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus.

Masks are also strongly recommended for those who may have been infected and those taking care of someone who may have the disease. When not wearing a mask, the CDC recommends covering the mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and recommends using the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available. Proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze is encouraged. Healthcare professionals interacting directly with COVID-19 patients are advised to use respirators at least as protective as NIOSH-certified N95 or equivalent, in addition to other personal protective equipment.

Self-isolation
Self-isolation at home has been recommended for those diagnosed with COVID-19 and those who suspect they have been infected. Health agencies have issued detailed instructions for proper self-isolation.

Many governments have mandated or recommended self-quarantine for entire populations. The strongest self-quarantine instructions have been issued to those in high risk groups. Those who may have been exposed to someone with COVID-19 and those who have recently travelled to a country or region with the widespread transmission have been advised to self-quarantine for 14 days from the time of last possible exposure.

Surface cleaning
Surfaces may be decontaminated with a number of solutions (within one minute of exposure to the disinfectant for a stainless steel surface), including 62–71 percent ethanol, 50–100 percent isopropanol, 0.1 percent sodium hypochlorite, 0.5 percent hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2–7.5 percent povidone-iodine. Other solutions, such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate, are less effective. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation may also be used. The CDC recommends that if a COVID-19 case is suspected or confirmed at a facility such as an office or day care, all areas such as offices, bathrooms, common areas, shared electronic equipment like tablets, touch screens, keyboards, remote controls, and ATM machines used by the ill persons should be disinfected.

Ventilation and air filtration
The CDC recommends ventilation in public spaces to help clear out infectious aerosols, as well several others, including those regarding air filtration, however doctors have been cautious about recommending air filtration due to the potentially very small size of virus particles, despite some filters labelled to remove viruses to the 5-micron level. In July, researchers at the University of Houston said they had designed a filter using nickel foam which used heat to kill the virus. Some experts have recommended UV light inside HVAC systems.

Vaccine
A COVID‑19 vaccine is a biotechnology intended to provide acquired immunity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). In July 2020, 218 vaccine candidates were in development, although no candidate has completed clinical trials to prove its safety and efficacy. In July, 24 vaccine candidates were announced or undergoing clinical trials, with two beginning Phase III and seven in Phase I-II.

wikipedia.org

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