Jump to content
Invision Community
FORUMS BLOG/NEWS USER BLOGS USER MEDIA ADVERTS   ADD  MANAGE CHAT CLUBS & USER'S PERSONAL FORUMS LINK EXCHANGE
META-99 SEARCH ENGINE
Sign in to follow this  
davidtrump

Training and practice by country 1

Recommended Posts

Training and practice by country

Armenia

The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health oversee pharmacy school accreditation in Armenia. Pharmacists are expected to have competency in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), the use of Standard Treatment Guidelines, drug information, clinical pharmacy, and medicine supply management. There are currently no laws requiring pharmacists to be registered, but all pharmacies must have a license to conduct business. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report from 2010, there are 0.53 licensed pharmacists and 7.82 licensed pharmacies per 10,000 people in Armenia. Pharmacists are able to substitute for generic equivalents at point of dispensing.

Australia

The Australian Pharmacy Council is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists. It conducts examinations on behalf of the Pharmacy Board of Australia towards eligibility for registration. The Australian College of Pharmacy provides continuing education programs for pharmacists.

Wages for pharmacists in Australia appear to have stagnated.  The award wages for a pharmacist is $812 a week. Pharmacist graduates are the lowest paid university graduates most years. Most pharmacists do earn above the award wage; the average male pharmacist earns $65,000, a female pharmacist averages $56,500. Over recent years, wages have stagnated, and even gone backwards. There are more graduates expected in the next few years making it even harder to get a job. Job security and increase in wages with regards to CPI could be unlikely.[citation needed] This is due to the large numbers of pharmacy graduates in recent years, and government desire to lower PBS costs. Contract and casual work is becoming more common. A contract pharmacist is self-employed and often called a locum; these pharmacists may be hired for one shift or for a longer period of time. There are accounts of underemployment and unemployment emerging recently.

Canada

The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) is the national professional organization for pharmacists in Canada. Specific requirements for practice vary across provinces, but generally include a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy from a recognized university, successful completion of a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, and practical experience through an apprenticeship/internship program.

The vast majority (80%) of Canada's licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacies, another 15 percent in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder work in situations that may not legally require licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms. The wages for pharmacists, at about CAD$95,000, have been said to be slightly better than Australia but not as good as in the United States.[citation needed] This likely depends on what parts of Canada and the United States are compared. Wages being significantly higher in Canada than most developing countries, recruitment of pharmacists from South Africa and other countries with acute health workforce shortages to work in private franchise chains is subject to controversy.

British Columbia
A pharmacist must be registered with the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia to practice in this province. A Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences is the minimum requirement to practice as a pharmacist in BC. The University of British Columbia is the only institution in the province that trains pharmacists. Professional associations include the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia and the British Columbia Pharmacy Association.

Alberta
The University of Alberta is the only institution in the province awarding pharmacy degrees, offering both Bachelor of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy programs. Pharmacists must be registered with the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to practice in Alberta.

Ontario
The Ontario College of Pharmacists grants licenses to practice as a Pharmacist in the province of Ontario. International graduates of pharmacy must successfully complete the Pharmacist Evaluating Exam and Pharmacist Qualifying Exam along with a Studentship and Internship to be registered as a Pharmacist in Ontario. Canadian graduates of the pharmacy programme can sit the qualifying exam directly without the evaluating exam.

Germany

In Germany, the education and training is divided into three sections, each ending with a state examination:

University: Basic studies (at least four semesters)
University: Main studies (at least four semesters)
Community Pharmacy / Hospital Pharmacy / Industry: Practical training (12 months; 6 months in a Community Pharmacy).
After the third state examination a person must become licensed as an RPh ("registered pharmacist") for a licence to practice pharmacy. Today, many pharmacists work as employees in public pharmacies. They will be paid according to the labour agreement of Adexa and employer associations.

Japan

History
In ancient Japan, the men who fulfilled roles similar to pharmacists were respected. The place of pharmacists in society was settled in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). Ranked positions in the pre-Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration (1868). In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists — and even pharmacist assistants — were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor.

Contemporary
As of 1997, 46 universities of pharmacy in Japan graduated about 8000 students annually. Contemporary practice of clinical pharmacists in Japan (as evaluated in September 2000) focuses on dispensing of drugs, consultation with patients, supplying drug information, advising on prescription changes and amending prescriptions. These practices have been linked to decreases in the average number of drugs in prescriptions, drug costs and incidence of adverse drug events.

Nigeria

Training to become a registered pharmacist in Nigeria involves a five-year course after six years of secondary/high school or four years after eight years of secondary/high school (i.e. after 2 years of Advanced-level studies in accredited Universities). The degree awarded by most pharmacy schools is a Bachelor of Pharmacy Degree (B.Pharm.) However, in the near future, all schools will offer a 6-year first Degree course leading to the award of a Pharm.D (Doctor of Pharmacy Degree). The University of Benin has started the Pharm.D programme with other pharmacy schools planning to start soon. The Pharmacy Degree in Nigeria is unclassified i.e. awarded without first class, second class upper, etc., however graduates could be awarded Pass with Distinctions in specific fields such as Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, medicinal chemistry etc. Pharmacy Graduates are required to undergo 1 year of Tutelage under the supervision of an already Registered Pharmacist(a preceptor) in a recognized and designated Institution before they can become Registered Pharmacists. The Profession is Regulated by a Government Statutory body called the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. The West African Post Graduate College of Pharmacy runs post-registration courses on advanced-level practice in various fields of pharmacy. It is a college jointly funded by a number of Countries in the West Africa sub-region. There are thousands of Nigerian-trained pharmacists registered and practicing in countries such as the US, the UK, Canada etc., due to the relatively poor public sector salaries in Nigeria.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a graduate-level professional doctorate degree. Twenty-one universities are registered with the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan for imparting Pharmacy courses. In 2004 the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan revised the syllabus and changed the 4-year B.Pharmacy (Bachelor of Pharmacy) Program to a 5-year Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) program. All 21 universities have started the 5-year Pharm.D Program. In 2011 the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan approved the awarding of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, a five-year programme at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Sign in to follow this  

×
×
  • Create New...