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Training

Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sport.

Examples are:

100 m sprint: in a sprint, the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training.
Century Ride: cyclists must be prepared aerobically for a bike ride of 100 miles or more.
Middle distance running: athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training. The hard-working muscles are at their peak for a longer period of time as they are being used at that level for the longer period of time.
Marathon: in this case, the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum.
Many firefighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job.
Members of armed forces are often required to pass a formal fitness test. For example, soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).
Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness to begin with; the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The army often trains to do mountain climbing and races.
Plyometric and isometric exercises: An excellent way to build strength and increase muscular endurance.
Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete. This is because sand collapses beneath the foot, softening the landing. Sand training is an effective way to lose weight and become fit, as more effort is needed (one and a half times more) to run on the soft sand than on a hard surface.
Aquajogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones. The water supplies minimal impact to muscles and bones, which is good for those recovering from injury. Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise (the deeper you are the greater the force needed to pull your leg through).

Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer's start.
For physical fitness activity to benefit an individual, the exertion triggers a response called a stimulus. Exercise with the correct amount of intensity, duration, and frequency can produce a significant amount of improvement. The person may overall feel better, but the physical effects on the human body take weeks or months to notice and possibly years for full development. For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue. To continue improvements, this demand must eventually increase little over an extended period of time. This sort of exercise training has three basic principles: overload, specificity, and progression. These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity.

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