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lindagray

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  1. Prevention Face masks and respiratory hygiene The CDC and WHO recommend individuals wear non-medical face coverings in public settings where there is an increased risk of transmission and where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. This recommendation is meant to reduce the spread of the disease by asymptomatic and pre-symtomatic individuals and is complementary to established preventive measures such as social distancing. Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. Many countries and local jurisdictions encourage or mandate the use of face masks or cloth face coverings by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus. Masks are also strongly recommended for those who may have been infected and those taking care of someone who may have the disease. When not wearing a mask, the CDC recommends covering the mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and recommends using the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available. Proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze is encouraged. Healthcare professionals interacting directly with COVID-19 patients are advised to use respirators at least as protective as NIOSH-certified N95 or equivalent, in addition to other personal protective equipment. Self-isolation Self-isolation at home has been recommended for those diagnosed with COVID-19 and those who suspect they have been infected. Health agencies have issued detailed instructions for proper self-isolation. Many governments have mandated or recommended self-quarantine for entire populations. The strongest self-quarantine instructions have been issued to those in high risk groups. Those who may have been exposed to someone with COVID-19 and those who have recently travelled to a country or region with the widespread transmission have been advised to self-quarantine for 14 days from the time of last possible exposure. Surface cleaning Surfaces may be decontaminated with a number of solutions (within one minute of exposure to the disinfectant for a stainless steel surface), including 62–71 percent ethanol, 50–100 percent isopropanol, 0.1 percent sodium hypochlorite, 0.5 percent hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2–7.5 percent povidone-iodine. Other solutions, such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate, are less effective. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation may also be used. The CDC recommends that if a COVID-19 case is suspected or confirmed at a facility such as an office or day care, all areas such as offices, bathrooms, common areas, shared electronic equipment like tablets, touch screens, keyboards, remote controls, and ATM machines used by the ill persons should be disinfected. Ventilation and air filtration The CDC recommends ventilation in public spaces to help clear out infectious aerosols, as well several others, including those regarding air filtration, however doctors have been cautious about recommending air filtration due to the potentially very small size of virus particles, despite some filters labelled to remove viruses to the 5-micron level. In July, researchers at the University of Houston said they had designed a filter using nickel foam which used heat to kill the virus. Some experts have recommended UV light inside HVAC systems. Vaccine A COVID‑19 vaccine is a biotechnology intended to provide acquired immunity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). In July 2020, 218 vaccine candidates were in development, although no candidate has completed clinical trials to prove its safety and efficacy. In July, 24 vaccine candidates were announced or undergoing clinical trials, with two beginning Phase III and seven in Phase I-II. wikipedia.org
  2. Prevention Strategies for preventing transmission of the disease include maintaining overall good personal hygiene, washing hands, avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands, and coughing or sneezing into a tissue, and putting the tissue directly into a waste container. Those who may already have the infection have been advised to wear a surgical mask in public. Physical distancing measures are also recommended to prevent transmission. Health care providers taking care of someone who may be infected are recommended to use standard precautions, contact precautions, and eye protection. Many governments have restricted or advised against all non-essential travel to and from areas affected by the outbreak. The virus has already spread within communities in large parts of the world, with many not knowing where or how they were infected. Misconceptions are circulating about how to prevent infection; for example, rinsing the nose and gargling with mouthwash are not effective. There is no COVID-19 vaccine, though many organisations are working to develop one. Hand washing Hand washing is recommended to prevent the spread of the disease. The CDC recommends that people wash hands often with soap and water for at least twenty seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty; before eating; and after blowing one's nose, coughing, or sneezing. This is because outside the human body, the virus is killed by household soap, which bursts its protective bubble. CDC further recommended using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser with at least 60 percent alcohol by volume when soap and water are not readily available. The WHO advises people to avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. It is not clear whether washing hands with ash, if soap is not available, is effective at reducing the spread of viral infections. Social distancing Social distancing (also known as physical distancing) includes infection control actions intended to slow the spread of disease by minimising close contact between individuals. Methods include quarantines; travel restrictions; and the closing of schools, workplaces, stadiums, theatres, or shopping centres. Individuals may apply social distancing methods by staying at home, limiting travel, avoiding crowded areas, using no-contact greetings, and physically distancing themselves from others. Many governments are now mandating or recommending social distancing in regions affected by the outbreak. Non-cooperation with distancing measures in some areas has contributed to the further spread of the pandemic. The maximum gathering size recommended by U.S. government bodies and health organisations was swiftly reduced from 250 people (if there were no known COVID-19 spread in a region) to 50 people, and later to 10. On 22 March 2020, Germany banned public gatherings of more than two people. A Cochrane review found that early quarantine with other public health measures are effective in limiting the pandemic, but the best manner of adopting and relaxing policies are uncertain, as local conditions vary. Older adults and those with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, respiratory disease, hypertension, and compromised immune systems face increased risk of serious illness and complications and have been advised by the CDC to stay home as much as possible in areas of community outbreak. In late March 2020, the WHO and other health bodies began to replace the use of the term "social distancing" with "physical distancing", to clarify that the aim is to reduce physical contact while maintaining social connections, either virtually or at a distance. The use of the term "social distancing" had led to implications that people should engage in complete social isolation, rather than encouraging them to stay in contact through alternative means. Some authorities have issued sexual health guidelines for the pandemic, which include recommendations to have sex only with someone you live with, and who does not have the virus or symptoms of the virus. wikipedia.org
  3. Diagnosis COVID-19 can provisionally be diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of infected secretions or CT imaging of the chest. Viral testing The standard test for current infection with SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA testing of respiratory secretions collected using a nasopharyngeal swab, though it is possible to test other samples. This test uses real-time rRT-PCR which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments. A number of laboratories and companies have developed serological tests, which detect antibodies produced by the body in response to infection. Several have been evaluated by Public Health England and approved for use in the UK. On 22 June 2020, UK health secretary Matt Hancock announced the country would conduct a new "spit test" for COVID-19 on 14,000 key workers and their families in Southampton, having them spit in a pot, which was collected by Southampton University, with results expected within 48 hours. Hancock said the test was easier than using swabs, and could enable people to conduct it at home. Imaging Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions. Many groups have created COVID-19 datasets that include imagery such as the Italian Radiological Society which has compiled an international online database of imaging findings for confirmed cases. Due to overlap with other infections such as adenovirus, imaging without confirmation by rRT-PCR is of limited specificity in identifying COVID-19. A large study in China compared chest CT results to PCR and demonstrated that though imaging is less specific for the infection, it is faster and more sensitive. wikipedia.org
  4. Cause Transmission COVID‑19 is a new disease, and many of the details of its spread are still under investigation. It spreads easily between people—easier than influenza but not as easily as measles. People are most infectious when they show symptoms (even mild or non-specific symptoms), but may be infectious for up to two days before symptoms appear (pre-symptomatic transmission). They remain infectious an estimated seven to twelve days in moderate cases and an average of two weeks in severe cases. People can also transmit the virus without showing any symptom (asymptomatic transmission), but it is unclear how often this happens. A June 2020 review found that 40–45% of infected people are asymptomatic. COVID-19 spreads primarily when people are in close contact and one person inhales small droplets produced by an infected person (symptomatic or not) coughing, sneezing, talking, or singing. The WHO recommends 1 metre (3 ft) of social distance; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 2 metres (6 ft). Transmission may also occur through aerosols, smaller droplets that are able to stay suspended in the air for longer periods of time. Experimental results show the virus can survive in aerosol up to three hours. Some outbreaks have also been reported in crowded and inadequately ventilated indoor locations where infected persons spend long periods of time (such as restaurants and nightclubs). Aerosol transmission in such locations has not been ruled out. Some medical procedures performed on COVID-19 patients in health facilities can generate those smaller droplets, and result in the virus being transmitted more easily than normal. When the contaminated droplets fall to floors or surfaces they can, though less commonly, remain infectious if people touch contaminated surfaces and then their eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands. On surfaces the amount of viable active virus decreases over time until it can no longer cause infection, and surfaces are thought not to be the main way the virus spreads. It is unknown what amount of virus on surfaces is required to cause infection via this method, but it can be detected for up to four hours on copper, up to one day on cardboard, and up to three days on plastic (polypropylene) and stainless steel (AISI 304). Surfaces are easily decontaminated with household disinfectants which destroy the virus outside the human body or on the hands. Disinfectants or bleach are not a treatment for COVID‑19, and cause health problems when not used properly, such as when used inside the human body. Sputum and saliva carry large amounts of virus. Although COVID‑19 is not a sexually transmitted infection, direct contact such as kissing, intimate contact, and fecal–oral routes are suspected to transmit the virus. The virus may occur in breast milk, but it's unknown whether it's infectious and transmittable to the baby. Estimates of the number of people infected by one person with COVID-19, the R0, have varied. The WHO's initial estimates of R0 were 1.4–2.5 (average 1.95), however an early April 2020 review found the basic R0 (without control measures) to be higher at 3.28 and the median R0 to be 2.79. Virology Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is a novel virus, first isolated from three people with pneumonia connected to the cluster of acute respiratory illness cases in Wuhan. All features of the novel SARS‑CoV‑2 virus occur in related coronaviruses in nature. SARS‑CoV‑2 is closely related to SARS‑CoV, and is thought to have a zoonotic origin. SARS‑CoV‑2 genetically clusters with the genus Betacoronavirus, and is 96 percent identical at the whole genome level to other bat coronavirus samples and 92 percent identical to pangolin coronavirus. wikipedia.org
  5. Signs and symptoms The usual incubation period (the time between infection and symptom onset) ranges from one to 14 days, and is most commonly five days. Some infected people have no symptoms, known as asymptomatic or presymptomatic carriers; transmission from such a carrier is considered possible. As at 6 April, estimates of the asymptomatic ratio range widely from 5 to 80 percent. Symptoms of COVID-19 can be relatively non-specific; the two most common symptoms are fever (88 percent) and dry cough (68 percent). Less common symptoms include fatigue, respiratory sputum production (phlegm), loss of the sense of smell, loss of taste, shortness of breath, muscle and joint pain, sore throat, headache, chills, vomiting, coughing out blood, diarrhea, and rash. Among those who develop symptoms, approximately one in five may become more seriously ill and have difficulty breathing. Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, sudden confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present. Further development of the disease can lead to complications including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, septic shock, and kidney failure. wikipedia.org
  6. Epidemiology Deaths Most people who contract COVID-19 recover. For those who do not, the time between the onset of symptoms and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days. As of 30 July 2020, approximately 664,000 deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. In China, as of 14 June, about 80 percent of deaths were recorded in those aged over 60, and 75 percent had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Obese individuals are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020. The first death outside of China occurred on 1 February in the Philippines, and the first death outside Asia was in France on 14 February. Official deaths from COVID-19 generally refer to people who died after testing positive according to protocols. This may ignore deaths of people who die without having been tested. Conversely, deaths of people who had underlying conditions may lead to overcounting. Comparison of statistics for deaths for all causes versus the seasonal average indicates excess mortality in many countries. In the worst affected areas, mortality has been several times higher than average. In New York City, deaths have been four times higher than average, in Paris twice as high, and in many European countries, deaths have been on average 20 to 30 percent higher than normal. This excess mortality may include deaths due to strained healthcare systems and bans on elective surgery. Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality. These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response, time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health. Some countries (like Belgium) include deaths from suspected cases of COVID-19, regardless of whether the person was tested, resulting in higher numbers compared to countries that include only test-confirmed cases. The death-to-case ratio reflects the number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 divided by the number of diagnosed cases within a given time interval. Based on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global death-to-case ratio is 3.9 percent (664,748 deaths for 16,940,174 cases) as of 30 July 2020. The number varies by region. Other measures include the case fatality rate (CFR), which reflects the percentage of diagnosed people who die from a disease, and the infection fatality rate (IFR), which reflects the percentage of infected (diagnosed and undiagnosed) who die from a disease. These statistics are not timebound and follow a specific population from infection through case resolution. Our World in Data states that as of 25 March 2020 the IFR cannot be accurately calculated as neither the total number of cases nor the total deaths, is known. In February the Institute for Disease Modeling estimated the IFR as 0.94 percent (95-percent confidence interval 0.37–2.9), based on data from China. The University of Oxford's Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) estimated a global CFR of 0.8 to 9.6 percent (last revised 30 April) and IFR of 0.10 percent to 0.41 percent (last revised 2 May), acknowledging that this will vary between populations due to differences in demographics. The CDC estimates for planning purposes that the fatality rate among those who are symptomatic is 1.1 percent and that 40 percent of infected individuals are asymptomatic, for an overall infection fatality rate of 0.65 percent (0.5 to 0.8 percent). Duration On 11 March 2020, the WHO said the pandemic could be controlled. The peak and ultimate duration of the outbreak are uncertain and may differ by location. Maciej Boni of Penn State University said, "Left unchecked, infectious outbreaks typically plateau and then start to decline when the disease runs out of available hosts. But it's almost impossible to make any sensible projection right now about when that will be." The Imperial College study led by Neil Ferguson stated that physical distancing and other measures will be required "until a vaccine becomes available (potentially 18 months or more)". William Schaffner of Vanderbilt University said because the coronavirus is "so readily transmissible", it "might turn into a seasonal disease, making a comeback every year". The virulence of the comeback would depend on herd immunity and the extent of mutation. wikipedia.org
  7. Epidemiology Background On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) detected reports of a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in Wuhan, Hubei, and an investigation was launched at the start of January 2020. On 30 January, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)—7,818 cases confirmed globally, affecting 19 countries in five WHO regions. Several early infected people had visited Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market; the virus is therefore thought to be of zoonotic origin. The virus that caused the outbreak is known as SARS‑CoV‑2, a newly discovered virus closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV. The scientific consensus is that COVID-19 has a natural origin. The probable bat-to-human infection may have been among people processing bat carcasses and guano in the production of traditional Chinese medicines. The earliest known person with symptoms was later discovered to have fallen ill on 1 December 2019, and that person did not have visible connections with the later wet market cluster. Of the early cluster of cases reported that month, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market. On 13 March 2020, an unverified report from the South China Morning Post suggested a case traced back to 17 November 2019 (a 55-year-old from Hubei) may have been the first person infected. The WHO recognised the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic on 11 March 2020 as Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan reported surging numbers of cases. The number of cases outside China quickly surpassed the number of cases inside China. Cases Official case counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols. As of 24 May, countries that publicised their testing data have typically performed many tests equal to 2.6 percent of their population, while no country has tested samples equal to more than 17.3 percent of its population. Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms. An analysis of the early phase of the outbreak up to 23 January estimated 86 percent of COVID-19 infections had not been detected, and that these undocumented infections were the source for 79 percent of documented cases. Several other studies, using a variety of methods, have estimated that numbers of infections in many countries are likely to be considerably greater than the reported cases. On 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that 15 percent of people tested in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, tested positive for antibodies. Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, has also found rates of positive antibody tests that may indicate more infections than reported. Seroprevalence based estimates are conservative as some studies shown that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodies. Some results (such as the Gangelt study) have received substantial press coverage without first passing through peer review. Analysis by age in China indicates that a relatively low proportion of cases occur in individuals under 20. It is not clear whether this is because young people are less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop serious symptoms and seek medical attention and be tested. A retrospective cohort study in China found that children were as likely to be infected as adults. Countries that test more, relative to the number of deaths, have a younger age distribution of cases, relative to the wider population. Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5, but a subsequent analysis concluded that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9). R0 can vary across populations and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account effects such as social distancing and herd immunity. By mid-May 2020, the effective R was close to or below 1.0 in many countries, meaning the spread of the disease in these areas at that time was stable or decreasing. wikipedia.org
  8. The COVID‑19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). The outbreak was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March. As of 30 July 2020, more than 16.9 million cases of COVID‑19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 664,000 deaths; more than 9.89 million people have recovered. The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, most often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking. The droplets usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than travelling through air over long distances. Transmission may also occur through smaller droplets that are able to stay suspended in the air for longer periods of time. Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face. It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread is possible before symptoms appear, and from people who do not show symptoms. Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell. Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to fourteen days. There is no known vaccine or specific antiviral treatment. Primary treatment is symptomatic and supportive therapy. Recommended preventive measures include hand washing, covering one's mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, wearing a face mask in public settings, disinfecting surfaces, increasing ventilation and air filtration indoors, and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected. Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of infected persons. The pandemic has caused global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression and global famines affecting 265 million people. It has led to the postponement or cancellation of sporting, religious, political, and cultural events, widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Schools, universities, and colleges have been closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 161 countries, affecting approximately 98.6 percent of the world's student population. Misinformation about the virus has circulated through social media and mass media. There have been incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates. wikipedia.org
  9. lindagray

    A Woman in Pharmacy

    US Woman Pharmacist in California
  10. lindagray

    Emergency Room in California

    Emergency Room is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance. The emergency department is usually found in a hospital or other primary care center.
  11. lindagray

    Women Fitness

    Album dedicated to Women Fitness. Save here the fitness photos for women in your gym
  12. lindagray

    Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin.
  13. lindagray

    Acupuncture

    Studies have documented acupuncture's effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the Western system of medicine.
  14. What heart attack symptoms are more common in women? Women are more likely than men to have a different symptom of heart attack than chest pain or discomfort. These symptoms include: Pain in the back, neck, jaw, or throat Indigestion Heartburn Nausea (feeling sick to the stomach) Vomiting Extreme fatigue (tiredness) Problems breathing (shortness of breath) Women are more likely than men to have heart attacks that do not show obvious symptoms. These are called silent heart attacks. All women should know and talk about their risk factors for heart attack with their doctor or nurse. What should I do if I have heart attack symptoms? If you think you, or someone else, may be having a heart attack, call 911 right away. Do not drive yourself to the hospital, and do not let a friend drive you. You may need medical help on the way to the hospital. Ambulance workers are trained to treat you on the way to the emergency room. Getting to the hospital quickly is important. Treatments for opening clogged arteries work best within the first hour after a heart attack starts. If you think you're having a heart attack, get emergency help right away. Don't let anyone tell you that you are overreacting or to wait and see. Get tips on how best to describe your symptoms and how to ask for tests that can show whether you're having a heart attack. What is a silent heart attack? A silent heart attack is a heart attack that does not cause obvious symptoms. Your doctor may discover a silent heart attack days, weeks, or months later on an electrocardiogram test used to diagnose a heart problem. Silent heart attack: Is more common in women than in men Can happen to women younger than 65. Younger women who have silent heart attacks without chest pain are more likely to die compared to younger men who have silent heart attacks without chest pain. Is more likely to happen in women with diabetes. Diabetes can change how you sense pain, making you less likely to notice heart attack symptoms.
  15. Heart Disease and Stroke Heart disease and stroke are important health issues for all women. Heart disease is the number one killer of American women, and stroke is fourth. While heart disease is most common in older women, most women between 40 and 60 years old have at least one risk factor for heart disease. The good news is that you can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke at any age. In the United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary microvascular disease (MVD) - a problem that affects the heart's tiny arteries Broken heart syndrome - extreme emotional stress leading to severe but often short-term heart muscle failure The older a woman gets, the more likely she is to get heart disease. But women of all ages should be concerned about heart disease. All women can take steps to prevent it by practicing healthy lifestyle habits. Heart attack symptoms Many people think the warning signs of a heart attack are sudden, like a movie heart attack, where someone clutches his chest and falls over. A real heart attack may look and feel very different for women. Women are more likely to have nontraditional symptoms of heart attack than men. And women are also more likely to have silent heart attacks. How do I know if I'm having a heart attack? For both women and men, the most common heart attack symptom is pain or discomfort in the center of the chest. The pain or discomfort can be mild or strong. It can last more than a few minutes, or it can go away and come back. The more heart attack symptoms that you have, the more likely it is that you are having a heart attack.1 Also, if you've already had a heart attack, your symptoms may not be the same for another one. Even if you are not totally sure you are having a heart attack, call 911 right away.
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